CHEM 260 : Introduction to Green Chemistry
2022 Semester Two (1225) (15 POINTS)
Capabilities Developed in this Course
|Disciplinary Knowledge and Practice
|Communication and Engagement
|Independence and Integrity
|Social and Environmental Responsibilities
- Develop and demonstrate knowledge pertaining to the background and development of Green Chemistry (Capability 1 and 2)
- Understand and apply knowledge of the common metrics used in Green Chemistry applications. (Capability 1, 2 and 3)
- Understand and apply knowledge of introductory green chemical synthetic methods, choice of solvents, atom economy, and sustainable raw materials. (Capability 1, 2 and 3)
- Understand and explain selected real world examples of Green Chemistry including applications in the clothing industry, insecticides, pharmaceutical manufacture and anti-fouling agents. (Capability 1, 2, 3 and 4)
- Understand and apply the concepts of biocatalysis, with selected examples including the sustainable synthesis of adipic acid, the use of detergent proteases, and the production of healthier fats and oils by enzymatic interesterification for production oils and fats (Capability 1, 2 and 3)
- Develop and demonstrate knowledge about the importance of using renewable feedstocks and recycling and selected examles of these as well as the basic concepts of a "bio-refinery" (Capability 1, 2 and 3)
- Develop skills in communication and engagement by competing a range of assignments designed to give practice and experience in developing audio-visual materials, presenting to large groups and engaging in open discussions and debates on topics relevant to Green Chemical Science. (Capability 4 and 5)
- Develop and demonstrate knowledge that directly impacts on the Social and Environmental Responsibilities associated with the development and application of science and technology (Capability 6)
- Develop critical thinking skills that will enable commercial, industrial and social practices to be analyzed from a sustainability perspective and solutions to identified problems developed. (Capability 2 and 3)
|Group & Individual Coursework
|Learning Outcome Addressed
The essentials of green chemistry: definitions, adverse effects of chemicals on health and the environment, history of the development of Green Chemistry, range of effects green chemists have to design against, sustainability as it relates to GC, ethical awareness.
Green chemistry and inherent hazards: risk as a function of hazard and exposure. The Grand challenges for Green Chemistry: Elimination of hazardous substances and pollution, renewable feedstocks, sustainable processes, energy. Green design: toxicity and ecotoxicity, endocrine disruption, steps to design against toxicity and test for toxicity. The definitions of Green Chemistry: implications, strengths, context of the chemical enterprise. The 12 Principles of Green chemistry: application of principles, examples.
The metrics of Green Chemistry: Determination of whether a process is green or not, atom economy, reaction mass efficiency, environmental (E) factor, use of 12 principles to measure sustainability of process, full life cycle, cradle to cradle, toxicity determination for new chemicals.. Designing sustainable solutions: general approaches, reduce stoichiometric waste, use catalysts, reduce energy consumption, better alternative solvents, new forms of biomass.
Real world Green Chemistry solutions: selected examples, e.g.
• Synthesis of Ibuprofen (atom economy and other metrics, green synthesis, application of catalysts etc)
• Designing an environmentally safe marine antifoulant (problems with fouling, replacement for tin compounds, bioavailability and accumulation)
• New insecticides that are relatively non-toxic; (mode of action of traditional insecticides, toxic to all species, molting hormone mimics give species selectivity, much less toxic)
(B) Pollution Prevention (7 lectures)
New Green and sustainable synthetic methods. An entry level overview to green synthetic methods, including waste reduction processes explained through use of synthetic reactions commonly performed in industrial settings; amide bond formation, alkene reduction and deoxychlorination.
Solvent use and alternatives to toxic solvents; mechanochemistry, ionic liquids, water, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and biorenewable solvents – applications to industrial settings. Solvent selection guides.
Atom economy, principles and examples
Society reliant chemicals – commodity and fine chemicals. Reliance on their production from fossil fuels and possible alternative sources such as biorenewable lignocellulosic biomass
Use of biorenewable platform chemicals in chemical synthesis, with case studies. Lignin and its potential.
(C) Sustainability/Real world Green Chemistry (7 lectures)
Real world case study: the clothing industry
• General introduction: True cost
• Introduction to the Textile Industry and the Chemical Industry
• Impacts of the global textile industry
• Sustainability challenges in the clothing industry
• Why is the clothing industry unsustainable?
• Sustainability issues in the clothing industry
• Certification and industry schemes
• Ethical and fair trade fashion
• Sustainable clothing: the dream
• Stain and water-resistant materials
• Alternative chemicals in the clothing industry
• Jean genie
(D) Biocatalysis (7 lectures)
Introduction: enzymes as whole cell biocatalysts, use of microbes as environmentally benign synthetic catalysts.
Real world examples:
• Genetically altered e-coli to synthesise adipic acid,
• detergent proteases,
• healthier fats and oils by enzymatic interesterification for production oils and fats with no “trans-fats”.
(E) Renewable feedstocks, recycling (5 lectures)
Raw materials from nature: Introduction, basic “biorefinery” concepts, lignin and cellulose as potential raw materials, new chemistry required for using new feedstocks (contrast with oil/alkenes)
Real world examples of the use of renewable feedstocks:
• Production and use of thermal polyaspartate polymers (biodegradable alternatives to polyacrylates)
• Development of a new method for synthesising polylactic acid from corn; (made from starch, is fully compostable, can be recycled into pure starting materials, avoids using organic solvents).
• Preparation of propylene glycol from the glycerine by-product obtained from the production of bio-diesel; (converting a waste product into low-toxicity anti-freeze and important chemical feed-stock
• Petretec polyester regeneration technology (scrap PTE to monomers, purification, the polymer regeneration; azeotropes)
(F) Pure water: (2 lectures)
Introduction: Looming world crisis, human population, global warming, need to recycle water. Active pharmaceutical ingredients and compounds of emerging concern in water, general properties of AIPs and CECs, current methods of removal, advanced oxidation processes, pros and cons of all these processes from a Green Chemistry perspective.
The health and safety requirements detailed for the laboratory sessions must be adhered to.
This course is a standard 15 point course and students are expected to spend 10 hours per week involved in each 15 point course that they are enrolled in.
For this course, you can expect 36 hours of lectures, 12 one hour tutorials, 12 hours of laboratory work, 42 hours of reading and thinking about the content and 48 hours of work on assignments and/or test preparation.
Campus Experience or Online
This course is offered in two delivery modes:
Attendance is required at scheduled activities including labs and tutorials to complete and receive credit for components of the course.
Lectures will be available as recordings. Other learning activities including labs will not be available as recordings.
The course will include live online events including group discussions.
Attendance on campus is required for the exam.
The activities for the course are scheduled as a standard weekly timetable.
Attendance is expected at scheduled online activities including tutorials to complete components of the course.
The course will include live online events including group discussions/tutorials/lectures and these will be recorded.
Attendance on campus is not required for the exam.
Where possible, study material will be released progressively throughout the course.
This course runs to the University semester timetable and all the associated completion dates and deadlines will apply.
The delivery mode of this course may change in accordance with changes to New Zealand Government recommendations. Updates for this course will be provided on the course Canvas page.
This course may be taken remotely, including tests and exams, if you meet Ministry of Health guidelines and receive an exemption, or are unable to attend because of border restrictions.
Course materials are made available in a learning and collaboration tool called Canvas which also includes reading lists and lecture recordings (where available).
Please remember that the recording of any class on a personal device requires the permission of the instructor.
During the course Class Representatives in each class can take feedback to the staff responsible for the course and staff-student consultative committees.
At the end of the course students will be invited to give feedback on the course and teaching through a tool called SET or Qualtrics. The lecturers and course co-ordinators will consider all feedback.
Your feedback helps to improve the course and its delivery for all students.
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If your personal circumstances significantly affect your performance, or preparation, for an exam or eligible written test, refer to the University’s aegrotat or compassionate consideration page https://www.auckland.ac.nz/en/students/academic-information/exams-and-final-results/during-exams/aegrotat-and-compassionate-consideration.html.
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In the event of an unexpected disruption, we undertake to maintain the continuity and standard of teaching and learning in all your courses throughout the year. If there are unexpected disruptions the University has contingency plans to ensure that access to your course continues and course assessment continues to meet the principles of the University’s assessment policy. Some adjustments may need to be made in emergencies. You will be kept fully informed by your course co-ordinator/director, and if disruption occurs you should refer to the university website for information about how to proceed.
The delivery mode may change depending on COVID restrictions. Any changes will be communicated through Canvas.
Student Charter and Responsibilities
The Student Charter assumes and acknowledges that students are active participants in the learning process and that they have responsibilities to the institution and the international community of scholars. The University expects that students will act at all times in a way that demonstrates respect for the rights of other students and staff so that the learning environment is both safe and productive. For further information visit Student Charter https://www.auckland.ac.nz/en/students/forms-policies-and-guidelines/student-policies-and-guidelines/student-charter.html.
Elements of this outline may be subject to change. The latest information about the course will be available for enrolled students in Canvas.
In this course students may be asked to submit coursework assessments digitally. The University reserves the right to conduct scheduled tests and examinations for this course online or through the use of computers or other electronic devices. Where tests or examinations are conducted online remote invigilation arrangements may be used. In exceptional circumstances changes to elements of this course may be necessary at short notice. Students enrolled in this course will be informed of any such changes and the reasons for them, as soon as possible, through Canvas.