CHEM 360 : Contemporary Green Chemistry
2020 Semester One (1203) (15 POINTS)
Capabilities Developed in this Course
|Disciplinary Knowledge and Practice
|Communication and Engagement
|Social and Environmental Responsibilities
- Demonstrate an understanding Toxicity and the endocrine system, with particular reference to the toxicity of chemicals used commercially, dose-response curves, endocrine disrupting chemicals, Green Chemistry solutions for eliminating EDCs, plastics and additives in plastics, TiPED. Real world Green Chemistry/Sustainability problems and solutions: Selected examples development of Green Chemistry as an area of chemistry (Capability 1)
- Demonstrate knowledge of Green Chemistry principles in organic synthesis with special emphasis on C-H functionalization, hydrogen auto-transfer and catalysis. (Capability 1)
- Understand sustainability issues facing the pharmaceutical industry with focus on the importance of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to health, problems with over use of APIs and antibiotics, typical design characteristics of APIs and how these characteristics lead to problems when the APIs are released into the environment, and the inefficient syntheses of many pharmaceuticals. (Capability 1)
- Demonstrate an understanding of the use of renewable and sustainably produced feedstocks, the importance recycling where appropriate, and assessment of the full costs and benefits of utilising waste and recycling. (Capability 1)
- Demonstrate an understanding of the problems associated with energy production based on fossil carbon and the potential sustainable alternatives including hydrogen production through novel catalytic and photocatalytic processes of water splitting, CO2 reduction to CH4 and hydrocarbons, and N2 fixation to produce NH3. (Capability 1)
- Understand and explain the principles associated with photovoltaics and solar energy capture, including consideration within a sustainability context of the total solar energy available in practice, the diurnal problem, capturing solar energy as thermal energy or as electrical energy. (Capability 1)
- Understand the concepts of biocatalysts (including the use of extremophiles, mutagenesis, directed evolution, growth stimulation and disease suppression), the biorefinery concept (including the conversion of lignin to chemicals and fuels), and selected examples of the commercial use of biocatalysis. • Blue Marble energy’s anaerobic digestion technology • Chemrec's technology for second generation biofuels (methanol and DME) via pulp and paper black liquor gasification (Capability 1)
- Develop skills in communication and engagement by competing a range of assignments designed to give practice and experience in developing audio-visual materials, presenting to large groups and engaging in open discussions and debates on topics relevant to Green Chemical Science. (Capability 4)
- Develop an understanding of social and Environmental Responsibilities associated with the development and application of science and technology (Capability 6)
- Develop critical thinking skills that will enable commercial, industrial and social practices to be analyzed from a sustainability perspective and solutions to identified problems developed. (Capability 2 and 3)
|Group & Individual Coursework
|Learning Outcome Addressed
The essentials of green chemistry: Review of definitions, history of the development of Green Chemistry, adverse effects of chemicals on health and the environment, range of effects green chemists have to design against, sustainability as it relates to GC, ethical awareness, the definitions of Green Chemistry, 12 Principles of Green chemistry, the metrics of Green Chemistry,
Toxicity and the endocrine system: Introduction, the chemical enterprise, toxicity and chemicals used commercially, TiPED, the endocrine system, dose-response curves, endocrine disrupting chemicals, Green Chemistry solutions for eliminating EDCs, plastics and additives in plastics, the obesogen hypothesis.
Real world Green Chemistry/Sustainability problems and solutions: Selected examples
(B) Green Organic synthesis (7 lectures)
Advantages over traditional functional group manipulations
Selective reaction of Csp2-H and Csp3-H bonds; radical and transition metal mediated processes, use of directing groups and auxiliaries.
Iridium catalysed C-H borylation processes in heteroaromatic C-H functionalisation and relevance to the pharmaceutical industry
Hydrogen auto-transfer (borrowing hydrogen)
Alternative to alkylating agents (R-Br, ROTs etc.)- using safe, non-toxic alcohols as ‘electrophiles’, facile transition metal-mediated functionalisation of amines (C-N bond formation) and C-C bond formation is possible. Applications of borrowing hydrogen methodology in pharmaceutical synthesis is discussed
(C) Sustainability and the pharmaceutical industry: (4 lectures)
Introduction: Importance of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to our health, mis-use of APIs – over prescription, factory farming and antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance etc, typical characteristics designed for in current active pharmaceutical ingredients (AOIs), how these characteristics (bio-availability, bio-active, resistance to being metabolised, etc) lead to problems when the APIs are released into the environment, APIs that are found in drinking water , inefficient syntheses of many pharmaceuticals (waste produced per kg product). Selected examples of some of these features.
(D) Renewable feedstocks, recycling: (2 lectures)
Introduction: production of renewable feedstocks, sustainability of commercial growing practices, sources of waste that potentially could be utilised to make valuable products, assessment of the full costs of utilising waste and recycling vs alternative of dumping, burning, etc., sustainability considerations. Examples could include:
• Converting agri-waste to valuable products (e.g. winery waste to packaging etc.)
• Development of a fully recyclable carpet; (use of polymers that can be recycled)
(E) Energy (4 lectures)
Introduction: Modern societies are heavily reliant on cheap fossil fuel energy for electricity generation and transportation. Dwindling fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns associated with anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use motivate the development of alternative and sustainable renewable energy technologies. What energy carrier will replace fossil fuels? H2? These lectures will explore the following;
• Logistics to the development of a sustainable hydrogen economy
• Development of novel catalytic and photocatalytic processes for H2 production by water splitting, CO2 reduction to CH4 and hydrocarbons, N2 fixation to produce NH3.
(F) Photovoltaics and solar energy capture (4 lectures)
Solar Power: Total solar energy available in practice, the diurnal problem
• capturing solar energy as thermal energy,
• capturing solar energy as electrical energy (solar cells, photovoltaics, dye sensitised solar cells),
• storage of electrical energy in batteries and other devices,
• powering cars with electricity stored in batteries,
Consideration of the pros and cons of solar capture technologies within a sustainability context.
(G) Biocatalysts (6 lectures)
Introduction: advantages and challenges. Use of extremophiles, mutagenesis, directed evolution, mechanisms: C-C bond formation, Cytochrome P450, glycosynthase, using naturally occurring proteins to stimulate plant growth improve crop quality increase yields and suppress disease;
The biorefinery concept: The concept of a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass. Examples could include:
• Conversion of lignin to chemicals and fuels
• Blue Marble energy’s anaerobic digestion technology
• Chemrec's technology for second generation biofuels (methanol and DME) via pulp and paper black liquor gasification
There is no required text book for this course. Individual lecturers for the course will indicate to students the appropriate reference material for each topic presented.
This course is a standard 15 point course and so students are expected to spend 10 hours per week involved in this course that they are enrolled in.
For this course, you can expect 36 hours of lectures, 24 hours of laboratory work, 12 one hour tutorials, 36 hours of reading and thinking about the content and 42 hours of work on assignments and/or test preparation.
Course materials are made available in a learning and collaboration tool called Canvas which also includes reading lists and lecture recordings (where available).
Please remember that the recording of any class on a personal device requires the permission of the instructor.
All lectures will be recorded and will be available on Canvas.
The content and delivery of content in this course are protected by copyright. Material belonging to others may have been used in this course and copied by and solely for the educational purposes of the University under license.
You may copy the course content for the purposes of private study or research, but you may not upload onto any third party site, make a further copy or sell, alter or further reproduce or distribute any part of the course content to another person.
The University of Auckland will not tolerate cheating, or assisting others to cheat, and views cheating in coursework as a serious academic offence. The work that a student submits for grading must be the student's own work, reflecting their learning. Where work from other sources is used, it must be properly acknowledged and referenced. This requirement also applies to sources on the internet. A student's assessed work may be reviewed against online source material using computerised detection mechanisms.
All students are asked to discuss any impairment related requirements privately, face to face and/or in written form with the course coordinator, lecturer or tutor.
Student Disability Services also provides support for students with a wide range of impairments, both visible and invisible, to succeed and excel at the University. For more information and contact details, please visit the Student Disability Services’ website at http://disability.auckland.ac.nz
If your ability to complete assessed coursework is affected by illness or other personal circumstances outside of your control, contact a member of teaching staff as soon as possible before the assessment is due.
If your personal circumstances significantly affect your performance, or preparation, for an exam or eligible written test, refer to the University’s aegrotat or compassionate consideration page: https://www.auckland.ac.nz/en/students/academic-information/exams-and-final-results/during-exams/aegrotat-and-compassionate-consideration.html.
This should be done as soon as possible and no later than seven days after the affected test or exam date.
During the course Class Representatives in each class can take feedback to the staff responsible for the course and staff-student consultative committees.
At the end of the course students will be invited to give feedback on the course and teaching through a tool called SET or Qualtrics. The lecturers and course co-ordinators will consider all feedback.
Your feedback helps to improve the course and its delivery for all students.
Student Charter and Responsibilities
The Student Charter assumes and acknowledges that students are active participants in the learning process and that they have responsibilities to the institution and the international community of scholars. The University expects that students will act at all times in a way that demonstrates respect for the rights of other students and staff so that the learning environment is both safe and productive. For further information visit Student Charter (https://www.auckland.ac.nz/en/students/forms-policies-and-guidelines/student-policies-and-guidelines/student-charter.html).
Elements of this outline may be subject to change. The latest information about the course will be available for enrolled students in Canvas.
In this course you may be asked to submit your coursework assessments digitally. The University reserves the right to conduct scheduled tests and examinations for this course online or through the use of computers or other electronic devices. Where tests or examinations are conducted online remote invigilation arrangements may be used. The final decision on the completion mode for a test or examination, and remote invigilation arrangements where applicable, will be advised to students at least 10 days prior to the scheduled date of the assessment, or in the case of an examination when the examination timetable is published.